08 April 2014

Cambria Iron Company Part 2

In Part 1 of "Cambria Iron Company"  I introduced the first map of the iron plant circa 1853 between Johnstown and Cambria City Pennsylvania. In this post I'll show the next map from the HAER from the LOC dated in 1878.

Click for High Resolution TIFF from the LOC
Compared to the first image you can see that many additional structures have been added.  Important to note are the Iron and Steel Rail Mills, the Belgian Coke Ovens, Bessemer Plant and the coal washer (all highlighted in red above)

It's unclear to me if the coke ovens described in the US Census 1880 Special Reports on Petroleum, Coke, and Building Stones, Volumes 1-2 diagram of Cambria Iron Company's Coke Ovens is accurate but below is a diagram from that report:
Click here to go to Google Scanned Report

Additionally the above report has diagrams of coal washers of the time period see pages 76&77

All pretty sophisticated for the day!  What I believe to be one of the most important structures is the one dedicated for the Bessemer process.
File:Bessemer Converter (PSF).jpg
From Wikipedia
The Bessemer process introduced moving air through the molten pig iron to create reliable steel.  The process used a crucible with fittings near the bottom called tuyeres that introduced air to the molten iron, that air brought oxygen into the mix and the process of oxidation assisted in removing impurities and thereby improving the quality of the steel.

Finally if you'd like to check out a very coarse georeferenced version of the above map in Google Earth please click on the caption of the below image:

Click Here for KMZ file of the above Image